Ancient History of Celtic Cross, Equal Arm Cross and Others

The Latin cross, crux immissa, crux capitata. The latin word crux is derived from "cruciare", meaning to torture. This cross since at least one thousand years has been the Western world's symbol par excellence. It is chiefly associated with the torture and killing of Jesus Christ, and thus with the Christian religion and Christianity.

Before the time of Jesus, the cross represented, among other things, the staff of Apollo, the sun god, son of Zeus, and appeared for instance on ancient coins.

Crosses with arms of equal length (the equal arm cross) were used frequently since time immemorial in pre-Columbian America, the Euphrates-Tigris region, and other parts of the world. That cross seems to have been associated with the sun and the powers that controlled the weather. In Babylon, the equal arms cross was considered one of the attributes of Anu, god of the heavens. In the mighty Assyrian empire, which seems to have originated as a Babylonian colony in the second millennium B.C., the sun cross in the wheel cross form of and was one of the attributes of the national god, Assur.

When the sun or equal arm cross was used as the staff of Apollo it lost its ring, and one of its arms was lengthened to form the lower section. That seems to represent the first use of the Latin cross form in the Hellenic sphere. However, variations of crosses of the Latin type are fairly common elsewhere in Europe during, or even before the Bronze Age period, as witnessed by for instance such rock carved signs as .

Sometime during the first centuries of the Western calendar the Latin cross was adopted by the Christian ideology. Still being associated with heavenly, almighty lords, both and even more so , the sun god's staff, gradually became symbols for death, sin, guilt death, sin, guilt, and burial. But, and in accordance with the law of the polarity of meanings of elementary graphs the cross also came to mean resurrection, rebirth, salvation, and eternal life after bodily death.

On gravestones and in genealogy the sign means dead, deceased and date of death. Compare with six-pointed and five-pointed star signs for born, or date of birth, on tomb stones and in genealogy.

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Return must be shipped (at buyers cost) insured with delivery confirmation added. Delivery confirmation number or other verified shipping number must be supplied to us within 24 hours of shipment. Refunds are issued for purchase price only, no refund on shipping/handling. Customer must contact us and notify a request for return, then ship the item back insured with delivery confirmation to us at customers cost. We will repair or replace the item and return it to the customer. Delivery confirmation # must be supplied to us within 24 hours of return shipment.

Products are handcrafted to order. Please allow sufficient time for your order to be completed. An order may take from 10 days to 6 weeks (custom built altars may take up to 10 weeks) depending on the order, how many other orders we have in front of you, etc. DragonOak and Gypsy Beth have no other employees, we do all the work ourselves. This prevents the hands of too many on your magical tool. However, if we have a bad day, to avoid putting any of that negative energy into your product, we may have to take the day off once in a while.

(We work 7 days a week 10-16 hours a day).

We build and design each product with love and positive intent. DragonOak creates each item to be a "magickal" tool and this intent is most important. Most commercial products cannot make this claim. For a definition of the process of creating real magickal items please visit The Process of Creating Truly Magickal Ritual Tools web page.

Most of our altars and boxes are built with no metal, as it is believed by some that metal may interfere with the transfer of energy. We do add brass candle holders to many of the altars and will gladly leave the candle hole off if you prefer.

Your DragonOak original piece is made especially for you after you have placed your order!
All designs are wood burned by hand and each is truly unique.
DragonOak has studied divination and ritual for many years and brings forth products fitting for your ritual and sacred space.

Products are made to look rustic, if you feel there is a defect we would be happy to remake or repair your item.

Our site is not set up to add special instructions to your order, like change of design, custom sizing or directions. If you use PayPal you will have a place to include your personalized name choice. Please Specify Name Accurately. If you have other requests for customizing your purchase or you use Google Shopping Cart just drop us an email indicating your preferences, after your payment is made. DragonOak Custom Request

You may also mail your order, with complete information including your ship to address, and pay by cashiers check/money order. To Pay by mail please follow the link for our order form, print out, and complete for items you are ordering. DragonOak's Wood Shop Order Form Personal checks will be accepted if they are on US banks only and orders will not be processed until the check has cleared our bank. (If paying by check, please include your state drivers license and birth-date.).